Question and Answaers on Power Plant Engineering

1. Name the four major circuits in steam power plant.

· Coal and ash circuit

· Air and flue gas circuit

· Feed water and steam circuit

· Cooling water circuit

2. What consists of air and flue gas circuit?

Air and flue gas circuit consists of forced draught fan, air‑pre‑heater, boiler, furnace, super heater, economiser, dust collector, induced draught fan and chimney.

3. What consists of feed water and steam flow circuit in steam power?

The feed water and steam flow circuit consists of feed pump, economiser boiler drum super heater, turbine and condenser.

4. What consists of cooling water circuit and coal & ash circuit in steam power plant?

The cooling water circuit consists of a pump, condenser and cooling tower. The coal and ash circuit consists of coal delivery, preparation of coal, handling of coal to the boiler furnace, ash handling and ash storage.

5. What is the main purpose of the reservoir?

The main purpose of reservoir is to store water received from catchments areas during the rainy seasons and supply the same during the dry season.

6. What is the main purpose of the dam?

The main purpose of the dam is to increase the height of water level and also to increase the working head of the hydraulic power plant.

7. Why trash rack is used?

The trash rack is used to prevent the entry of debris, which might damage the turbine runners and chock up the nozzle of impulse turbine.

8. What is the use of surge tank?

The surge tank is used to provide better regulation of water pressure in the system. The surge tank controls the water when the load on the turbine decreases and supplies water when the load on the turbine increases. Thus, surge tank controls the pressure variations resulting from the rapid changes in water flow in penstock and hence prevents water hammer.

9. What is the function of Fore bay?

Fore bay is considered as naturally provided surge tank. It is temporary water storage when the load on the plant is reduced and provides water for initial increment on increasing load.

10. Explain about penstock?

The pipe between surge tank and prime mover is known as penstock. It is designed to withstand high pressure. It is made up of reinforced concrete. In very cold areas, the penstock is buried to prevent ice formation and to reduce the expansion joints.

11. What is the use of spill Ways?

Spillway is like a safety valve of the dam. It discharges major flood without damaging the dam. It keeps the reservoir level below the maximum level allowed.

12. Write about prime movers?

Prime mover converts the kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy to produce electrical energy. Pelton wheel, turbine, Francis turbine, Kaplan turbine and Propeller turbine are prime movers used in hydraulic power plants.

13. What are the uses of air filter and superchargers in diesel engine power plant?

The purpose of air filter is to filter the air from dust and other suspended particles. The purpose of super charger is to increase the pressure of the engine to increase power of the engine.

14. What is the use of draft tube?

The draft tube is used to regain the kinetic energy of water coming out of reaction turbine. It enables the reaction turbine to be placed over tailrace level.

15. What is the function‑of cooling system in Diesel power plant?

The function of cooling system is to remove heat from the engine cylinder to keep the temperature of the cylinder in low range and extend engine life.

16. What consists of lubrication system in diesel engine power plant?

The lubrication system consists of oil pumps, oil tanks, filters, coolers and connecting pipes. The purpose of the lubrication is to reduce the friction of moving parts and also pipes to reduce the wear and tear of moving parts.

17. What is the purpose of intercooler in gas turbine power plant?

Since the power required to compress the air is less in isothermal process it is required to maintain the, temperature of air constant as far as possible. Hence the air leaving the L.P. compressor is cooled by intercooler and then passed to the H.P compressor.

18. Name two combined power cycles?

· Combined cycle of gas turbine and steam power plant.

· Combined cycle of gas turbine and diesel power plant.

19. Define turbo charging in combined gas turbine and diesel cycles?

In the combined cycle, the exhaust gas from the diesel engine is expanded in the turbine, which is coupled with compressor which supplies pressurized air to the diesel engine. This increases diesel engine output. This arrangement is known as turbo charging.

20. What is the main purpose of high-pressure boilers?

The high-pressure boilers are used to increase the efficiency of the plant and to reduce the cost of electricity production.

21. State important advantages of high-pressure boilers?

· The amount of scale formation is less, since the velocity of water through pipes are more.

· All parts of the system are heated uniformly, so there is no danger of overheating.

22. Name important high pressure boilers?

· La Mont boiler

· Benson boiler

· Loeffler boiler

· Velox boiler.

23. Write about La Mont boiler? What is the major disadvantage of La Mont boiler?

La Mont boiler is a forced circulation high pressure water tube boiler.

The major disadvantage is the formation of bubbles, salt and sediment on the inner surfaces of the heating surfaces. This reduces the heat flow and steam generation.

24. Write about Benson boiler? State some important advantages of Benson boiler?

Benson boiler is the high pressure, vertical fire tube boiler. This boiler has no drum and is ~designed to operate at critical pressure of 225 bar. Benson boiler has no drum. So the total weight of the Benson boiler is reduced by‑20%, when compared to other boilers.

o The erection of Benson boiler is easier and quicker.

25. Write about Loeffler boiler?

The major disadvantage in La Mont boiler is the deposition of salt and sediment on the inner surface of the water tubes. It reduces the heat transfer and ultimately the steam generating capacity.

In Loeffler boiler, this problem is solved by preventing water from flowing through the boiler tubes. The steam is generated outside the tubes.

26. Explain Reheat cycle?

If the dryness fraction of steam leaving the turbine is less than 0.88, then, corrosion and erosion of turbine blades occur. To avoid this situation, reheat is used.

In the reheat cycle, the expansion of steam takes place in one (or) more‑turbines. Steam is expanded in the HP turbine first, and then it is reheated. The reheated steam is again expanded in. the LP turbine.

27. What are the important advantages of Re‑heating?

· Due to reheating, network done increases

· Heat supply increases

· Thermal efficiency increases

· Due to reheating, the turbine exit dryness fraction increases so moisture decreases ‑ so blade erosion becomes minimum ‑ so life of the turbine will be increased.

28. Name different methods of reheating?

(a) Gas Reheating

(b) Live ‑ steam reheating

(c) Combined gas live steam reheater.

29. Define bleeding in steam power plant?

Assume I kg of steam is expanded in the turbine. Before complete amount of steam ‑is expanded, some amount of steam (m kg) is ‑extracted ' Extracting the steam in the turbine before exhaust is called bleeding. This bled steam is used to heat the feed water.

30. Explain the term Regeneration?

Regeneration means heating the feed water by steam taken from the turbine. The steam is exhausted (bled) from the turbine at several locations before exhaust and is supplied to regenerator (feed water heater) to heat the feed water.

31. State some advantages of Regeneration cycle?

· Heat supplied to boiler becomes reduced

· Thermal efficiency is increased since the average temperature of heat addition to the cycle is increased.

· Due to bleeding in the turbine, erosion of turbine due to moisture is reduced.

32. Name different methods used to extract steam for heating the feed water?

· Direct contact heater

· Drain pump method

· All drains to hot well

· Cascade system

33. Define the term waste heat recovery?

Waste heat is the heat which is not at all used and exhausted out as a waste product. Waste heat is normally available from the industry in the form of process steam and water at high temperature. Also, the waste heat is discharged with the exhaust gases in so many industries. This heat can be recovered for useful purpose. This process is known‑as waste heat recovery.

34. What are the waste materials, which can be used for fuel for power generation?

· Municipal waste

· Industrial waste

· Paper waste

· Rubber waste.

35 Write about waste heat boilers?

The waste heat boilers use the waste heat in gases coming out of diesel engines and gas turbines at high temperature (or) use the waste as a fuel in the incineration.

Some boilers use the industrial dirty gases for power generation.

36. Write about fluidised bed boilers?

When the high velocity gas is passed through a packed bed of finely divided solid particles, the particles become suspended in the gas stream and the packed bed becomes a fluidised bed. When the gas velocity is very high, the fluidised bed become turbulent and rapid mixing of particles occurs. Ultimately, the, behaviour of mixture solid particles and ‑gas become a fluid. Burning of a fuel in such a state is known as Fluidised Bed Combustion. The boiler plant using this fluidised bed combustion is known as fluidised bed boilers.

37. State some advantages of fluidised bed boilers?

· Any type of fuel ‑ solid, liquid (or) gaseous fuel (or) domestic and industrial waste can be used in FBC system. Any type‑ of combustible matter can be burned by adjusting the factors as size, air velocity and rate of feed.

· High heat transfer rate is possible to the surfaces immersed in the bed, because solid mixing is extremely possible.

· High combustion efficiency.

· The solid fuel need not be pulverised in fluidised bed boilers.

38. Name the two types of coal handling?

· Out plant handling

· In‑plant handling.

39. Write about out‑plant handling?

Out plant handling includes the handling of coalmine to the thermal power plant. These handlings are outside the plant in the following ways.

· Transportation by sea (or) river

· Transportation by rail

· Transportation by road

· Transportation of coal by pipeline.

40. Write about inplant handling of‑coal?

In order to handle large quantity of coal inside the plant, some mechanical handling systems are provided f6r smooth, easy and better controlled operation. The inplant coal handling is divided, into following categories.

· Coal unloading

· Coal preparation

· Coal transfer

· Coal storage

41. Why the preparation of coal is necessary?

The coal from coal nines cannot be directly fed into the furnace. Proper preparation of coal should be done before feeding the coal to the furnace. In the coal preparation, the coal passes through the different equipments like 1. Crushers 2. Sizers 3. Driers and Magnetic Separators.

42. Name the different types of coal transforming equipments?

1. Belt conveyors 2. Screw conveyors 3. Bucket elevators 4. Grab bucket elevators 5. Skip hoists 6. Flight conveyors.

The coal transfer starts by carrying of coal from‑unloading point to the storage site.

43. What is the use of belt conveyors?

Belt conveyors are mostly used for transporting coal over long distance with large quantity. An endless belt is made to run over a pair of end drums and pulleys and supported by series of roller at regular intervals.

44. Write about screw conveyor and bucket conveyors?

In screw conveyor, an endless helicoid screw is fitted to the 9haft. On one end of the shaft, the driving mechanism is fitted and the other end of the shaft is supported on a ball bearing. While the screw is rotating, the coal is transferred` from one end to the other end.

Bucket conveyors are used as vertical lifts. The coal is loaded at the bottom and unloaded at the top in the bucket conveyors.

45. Define draught, what is the use of draught in thermal power plants?

Draught is defined as a small pressure difference required between the fuel bed (furnace) and outside air to maintain constant flow of air and to discharge the gases through chimney to the atmosphere. Draught can be obtained by chimney, fan, steam jet (or) ‑air jet (or) combination of these.

The uses are

· To supply required quantity of air to the furnace for combustion of fuel.

· To draw the combustion products through the system.

· To remove burnt products from the system

46. Write about classification of draught?

Draught is classified as

1. Natural draught

2. Artificial draught

The artificial draught is further classified as

(a) Steam jet draught

(b) Mechanical draught

(c) Induced draught

(d) Forced draught

47. Define the term Natural draught and what are the advantages of natural draught system?

The tall chimney creates the natural draught by the temperature difference between hot gases in the chimney and cold atmospheric air outside the chimney.

The advantages are

· No external power is required

· Air pollution is less since gases are discharged at high level.

· No maintenance cost

· Capital cost is less than artificial draught.

48. Write about artificial draught?

In modem power plants, the draught should be flexible to meet the fluctuating loads and it should be independent of atmospheric conditions. To achieve this, the aid of draft fans becomes must and by employing the draft fans, the height of the chimney would be reduced.

49. Write about forced draught system?

In this system, the blower (forced draft fan) is located at the base of the boiler near the grate. Air is forced to the furnace by forced fan and the flue gases are forced to chimney through economiser and air preheater.

50. What are the advantages of forced draught system

· Since the fan handles cold air, the fan size and the power required are less.

· No need of water cooled bearings because the air being handled is cold air,

· Pressure throughout the system is above atmospheric pressure so the air leakage into the furnace is reduced.

51. How the induced draught is working?

In an induced draught system, a blower (induced draft fan) is placed near (or) at the base of the chimney. The fan sucks the flue gas from the furnace creating a partial vacuum inside the furnace. Thus atmospheric air is induced to flow through the furnace to aid the combustion of fuel. The flue gases drawn by the fan passes through chimney, to the atmosphere.

52. Why the balanced draught system is preferred than other system?

In the induced draught system, when the furnace is opened for firing, the cold air enters the furnace and dilate the combustion. In the forced draught system, when the furnace is opened for firing, the high pressure air will try to blow out suddenly and furnace may stop. Hence the furnace cannot be opened for firing (q) inspection in both, systems. Balanced draught, which is a combination of induced and forced draught, is used to overcome the above stated difficulties.

53. What is the difference between stocker firing and pulverised fuel firing?

The stocker firing method is used for firing solid coal where as pulverised firing method is used for firing pulverised coal.

54. What are‑the different types of stockers?

1. Over feed stockers

Travelling grate stockers

Spread stockers

2. Under feed stockers

Single retort stocker

Multi retort stocker

55. What is the use of pulveriser and name different types of pulverising mills?

The pulveriser is used to pulverise the coal in order to increase the surface exposure. Pulverised coal enables rapid combustion. The different types of pulverising mills are

1. Ball mill

2. Hammer mill

3. Ball and race mill.

56. Name the two methods of pulverised fuel firing system?

1. Unit (or) direct system

2. Bin (or) central system.

57. What are advantages of unit (or) direct system of pulverised fuel firing?

1. The layout is simple and economical

2. It gives direct control of combustion

3. Coal transportation system is simple

4. Maintenance cost is less

58. How the ash handling system is classified?

1. Mechanical handling system

2. Hydraulic system

3. Pneumatic system

4. Steam jet system

59. Why ash handling system is' needed?

· To remove the ashes from the furnace ash hopper

· To transport the ashes from furnace ash ‑ hopper to a storage

· To dispose the ashes from the storage

60. Name different types of dust collectors?

1. Mechanical Dust collector

Gravitational separators

Bag house dust collector

There are three types of bag house dust collector

· Open pressure type

· Closed pressure type

· Closed suction type

2. Cyclone. Separators

3. Elector Static Precipitator (ESP)

61. What is the main purpose of chimney?

The main purpose of chimney is to emit the flue gases at a considerable height to avoid nuisance to the surrounding people.

62. What are the different types of load act on the chimney?

There are two types of loads acting on the chimney namely.

· Its own weight which is considered to as a single vertical force acting through the centroid, and

· The Wind pressure, which is considered as the horizontal force acting on the centroid of vertical projected area.

63. Name different types of chimney?

1. Steel chimney

2. Site constructed chimney

3. Plastic chimney

64. Define forced draft and induced draft cooling towers

If the fan is located at the bottom of the tower and air is blown by the fan up through the descending water it is called as forced draft cooling towers

If the fan is located at the top of the tower and air enters through the louvers located on the tower’s side and drawn up and discharge through the fan casing, it is called as induced draft.

65. What are the advantages of induced draft cooling tower over forced draft cooling tower?

i. The outlet water comes in contact with the driest air and warmest water comes in contact with most humid air.

ii. The re-circulation is seldom a problem.

iii. The first cost is low due to the reduction in pump power consumption.

66. What are the advantages of hyperbolic natural-draft cooling towers?

  • Since no fans are used power cost and auxiliary equipments cost is reduced.
  • Hyperbolic tower chimney creates its own draft even when there is no wind
  • Ground fogging and warm air re-circulation are avoided in hyperbolic towers
  • The structure is more or less self-supported.

67. What are the factors that affect the rate of evaporation of water in cooling towers?

  • Amount of water surface area exposed
  • The time of exposure
  • The relative velocity of air passing over the droplets
  • The RH of air
  • The direction of airflow relative to water.

68. What is the working principle of Cooling Towers?

The hot water is sprayed from the top of the tower, while the air is made to flow from the bottom of the tower to the top. This air cools the hot water in the cooling tower. Air vaporises a small percentage of water, there by cooling the remaining water. The air absorbs the heat and leaves at the top of the tower and cooled water leaves at the bottom and recirculated to the condenser.

69. Name different types of cooling towers?

The cooling towers are classified as follows.

(a) According to the construction of material

1. Timber ‑ for small tower

2. Ferro concrete ‑ for large capacity stations.

3. Multi deck concrete towers ‑ for large steam stations

4. Metallic

(b) According to the nature of air draught‑

1. Atmospheric (or) Natural draught cooling system

2. Mechanical draught cooling tower.

70. How the atmospheric (or) natural draught cooling towers‑ are classified?

In atmospheric (or) natural cooling towers, the natural air provides the required

cooling without the use of fans. This is classified into three types.

1. Natural draft spray filled towers

2. Natural draft packed type towers.'

3. Hyperbolic cooling towers

71. How mechanical draft cooling towers are classified?

Mechanical draft cooling tower is classified into three types

1. Forced draft tower.

2. Induced draft counter flow tower

3. Induced draft cross flow tower.

72. How the dry type cooling towers are classified?

The dry type cooling towers are classified into two types 'as follows.

1. Indirect dry type (or) Heller cooling system

2. Direct dry type-cooling system

73. What are the methods to reduce the effects of particulates?

The effects of particulates can be reduced by the following methods.

· Coal cleaning

· Using improved electrostatic precipitator design

· Controlling the dust within allowable limit. This can be done by increasing the height of chimney thereby reducing the concentration

74. What are the equipments used for ash collection?

· Electrostatic precipitator

· Fly ash scrubbers

· Cinder catcher

· Cyclone dust collector

75. What is meant by 'Desulphurisation' and name the methods adopted for desulphurisation?

Desulphurisation of fuel is the process of reducing the sulphur content in the fuel. The following methods are adopted for desulphurisation.

1. Chemical treatment

2. Forth flotation

3. Magnetic separation

76. What are the methods adopted to remove' S02 flue gases?

1. Wet scrubbing

2. Solid absorbent

3. Catalytic oxidation

77. Write about C02 recorders?

In thermal power plants, it is necessary to keep the concentration Of C02 as low is necessary as possible. To achieve this, a constant recording of concentration Of C02

These recorders are based on the three different principles, as given below.

1. Thermal conductivity cell

2. Chemical absorption cell

3. Density balance 92. What is the‑ necessity of Automatic controls for feed water?

The electrical load on power plant varies in an irregular manner. The automatic control provided at a steam power plant successfully meets over the variable load. The automatic control for feed water is necessary sine the supply of feed water depends upon plant load.

78. Name some of the automatic controlling methods for feed water?

1. Single element pilot operated system

2. Single element self operated system

3. Two element pilot operated system

4. Three element pilot operated system

79. What is the purpose of automatic, combustion c61ritrol?

The main purpose of ‑automatic combustion' control system is to maintain load against demand, to prevent smoke, to increase boiler house efficiency, to carry out routine adjustments and to provide interlocking safe guards.

80. What are the appliances known as boiler accessories?

The appliances used to increase the efficiency of the boiler are known as boiler accessories.

The important boiler accessories are

1. Economiser 2. Superheater 3. Air preheater 4. Feed pump 5. Injector

81. What are the methods adopted to remove SO2 from due gases?

1. Wet scrubbing

2. Solid absorbent

3. Catalytic oxidation

82. Write about C02 recorders?

In thermal power plants, it is necessary, to keep the concentration of C02 as low

as possible. To achieve this ' a constant recording of concentration of C02 is necessary.

These recorders are based on the three different principles, as given below.

1. Thermal conductivity cell

2. Chemical absorption cell

3. Density‑ balance

83. What is the necessity of Automatic controls for feed water?

The electrical load on power plant varies irregular manner. The automatic man control provided at a steam power plant successfully meets over the variable load. The automatic control for feed water is necessary sine the supply of feedwater depends upon plant load.

84. Name some of the automatic controlling methods for feed water?

· A single element pilot operated system

· Single element self operated system

· Two element pilot operated system

· Three element pilot operated system

85. What is the purpose of automatic combustion control?

The main purpose automatic combustion control system is to maintain load adjust demand, to prevent smoke, to increase boiler house efficiency, to carry out routine adjustments and to provide interlocking safe guards.

86 What is the use of air preheater?

Air pre heater is used to transfer heat from the flue gases to the air before it passes into the furnace for combustion. It is placed between the economizer and chimney. The overall efficiency of the plant may be increased by 10 per cent by the use of air preheater.

87. Write about boiler mountings?

The devices used for the efficient operation, proper maintenance, and safe operation boiler mountings.

The different boiler mountings are

1. Water gauge (or) water level indicator

2. Pressure gauge (or) steam gauge

3. Safety valves

4. Fusible plug

5. Stop valve

6. Blow off cock

7. Feed check valve.

88. What is meant by boiler trial?

Steam is generated in boilers under certain conditions of feed water and exists as steam while a certain amount of fuel is burnt. To study the performance of boiler, some experiments are conducted by operating, the boiler for a certain length of time and recording the data. This procedure is known as boiler trial.

89. State the objective of boiler trial?

1.To determine the thermal efficiency of the boiler when working at a definite pressure.

2.To draw up heat balance sheet for the boiler to check the performance of the boiler.

90. Define demand factor?

· Demand factor is defined as the ratio of maximum demand to connected load.

· Connected load is the sum of ratings in kW of equipment installed in the consumer's premises.

· Maximum demand is the maximum load, which a consumer uses at any time.

91. Define load curve?

Load curve is a graphical representation between load in kW and time in hours. It. shows variati6n of load at the power station. The area under the load curve ‑represents the energy generated in a particular period.

92. Define load factor?

Load factor is defined as the ratio of average load to the peak load (or) maximum demand.

93. What includes fixed cost?

Fixed cost includes the following cost.

1. Cost of land 2. Cost of building

3. Cost of equipment 4. Cost of installati6n

5. Interest 6. Depreciation cost

7. Insurance 8. Management cost

94. What includes operating cost?

Operating cost includes the following cost.

1. Cost of fuel 2. Cost of operating labour,

3. Cost of maintenance labours and materials.

4. Cost of supplier like

Water for feeding boilers, for condenser and for general use.

Lubrication oil and, grease.

Water treatment chemicals.

95. What is the need of depreciation cost?

Depreciation cost is the amount to be set aside per year from the income of the plant to meet the depreciation caused by the age of service, wear and tear of the machinery and equipments. Depreciation amount collected every year helps in replacing and repairing the equipment.

96. Write about atomic number?

The nucleus contains protons and neutrons. The number of protons in a given atom is an atomic number (Z). The atomic number for H is 1 and He ‑is 2.

97. Write about isotopes of an element?

Some elements have the same number of protons in the nucleus but different number‑ of neutrons. As a result, these elements have the same atomic number but different mass number. Such type of elements which ' have the same atomic number – same number of protons ‑ the ‑same chemical properties but different mass numbers due to different number of neutrons, are known as I the isotopes of an element.

98. What are the requirements to sustain fission process?

  • The bombarded neutrons must have sufficient energy to cause fission
  • The number of neutrons produced must be able to create the rate of fission
  • The fission process must generate energy
  • The fission process must be controlled

99. Define multiplication factor of a fission process.

number of neutrons of any one generation

k =

number of neutrons of immediately preceding generation.

100. Define fertile materials and breeding in reactors

There are materials like U235 and Th232 which are not fissile but can be converted into fissile materials by the bombardment of neutrons. Such materials are known as fertile materials.

The process of converting more fertile material into fissile material in a reaction is known as breeding.

101. What are the desirable properties of a good moderator?

· It must be as light as possibleIt must slowdown the neutron as quick as possible

· It must have resistance to corrosion

· It must have good machinability

· It must have good conductivity and high melting point

102. What are the desirable properties of a coolant?

  • It should not absorb neutron
  • Have high chemical and radiation stability
  • Non-corrosive
  • Have high boiling point
  • Non-toxic

103. Name few types of reactors.

Fast reactors, Thermal reactors, natural fuel reactors, Enriched Uranium reactors, water moderated reactors, heavy water moderated reactor, graphite moderated reactor, gas cooled reactors and Sodium cooled reactors.

104. What are the advantages using CO2 as coolant?

· Gases do not react chemically with the structural materials

· Gas can attain any temperature for a particular pressure

· They do not absorb neutron

· The leakage of gas will not affect the reactivity

· The gas coolant provides best neutron economy

105. What are the advantages of breeder reactors?

  • It gives high power density than any other reactor
  • High breeding is possible
  • High burn-up of fuel is achievable
  • The operation of the reactor is not limited by Xe poisoning

106. What are the demerits of breeder reactor?

  • Highly enriched fuel is required
  • Control is difficult and expensive
  • Safety must be provided against melt down
  • Handling of sodium is a major problem

107. What are the advantages of Sodium in fast-breeder reactors?

  • Sodium has very low absorption cross-sectional area
  • It posses good heat transfer properties at high temperature and low pressure
  • It does not react with any of the structural materials used in primary circuits

108. Name the different types of MHD generators

  • Open cycle MHD
  • Closed cycle MHD
  • Closed cycle MHD with liquid metal

109. What is the working principle of magneto hydrodynamic power plant?

The working principle of MHD is as like that of dynamo. Instead of solid conductor high temperature plasma is passed through the magnetic field at sonic speed. When the gas is passed through magnetic field, current is induced. Electrodes collect this induced current.

110. What is the purpose of control rods?

The control rods are used to start the chain reaction, maintain the chain reaction at required level and to shut down the reactor during emergency.

111. What are the different types of load acting on the chimney?

  • Its own weight which is considered to act on a single vertical force acting through the centroid
  • The wind pressure, which is considered to act on the horizontal force acting on the centroid of vertical projected area.

112. What is meant by Nuclear fission?

Uranium exists in different isotopes of U238, tP34 and U235. Out of these, EP35 is most unstable. When unstable heavy nucleus is bombarded with high-energy neutrons, it splits up roughly into two equal fragments and about 2.5 neutrons are released and a large amount of energy is produced. This process is called nuclear fission.

113. Name the different components of nuclear reactor?

1. Nuclear fuel 2. Moderator 3. Control rods 4. Reflectors

5. Reactor vessel 6. Biological shielding 7. Coolant

114. State some advantages of Pressurized Water reactor?

· The pressurized water reactor is compact

· In this type, water is used as coolant, moderator and reflector water is cheap and available in plenty)

· It requires less number of control rods.

115. What are the advantages of gas cooled reactor nuclear power plant?

1. Fuel processing is simple

2. The use of C02 as coolant completely eliminates the possibility of explosion in reactor.

3. No corrosion problem

116. What is breeding in nuclear reactor?

The process of producing fissionable material from a fertile material such as uranium 238 (U238) and thorium 232 (Th 232 ) by neutron absorption is known as breeding.

117. Name the coolants commonly used for fast breeder reactors?

Liquid metal (Na (or) Na K)

Helium (He)

Carbon dioxide.