Civil Engineering is the oldest branch of Engineering next to Military Engineering. It involves planning, design, construction and maintenance of structures such as bridges, roads, canals, dams, tunnels and multi-storeyed buildings.
Shelter is the basic need of civilization. The huts built with bamboos and leaves can be taken as the early civil Engineering Constructions carried out to satisfy the needs for shelter. Over the years there has been a tremendous growth in the field of civil Engineering to provide quality houses which are safe, functional, aesthetic and economical.
Flats and apartments are constructed in urban areas to provide shelter to large number of people. Multi storeyed buildings and sky−scrapers are planned and constructed to provide office space, shopping−malls, cyber centers, hotels and restaurants etc.
Irrigation is defined as the artificial application of water to land for the purpose of raising crops. Civil Engineering gives vast scope for irrigation by constructing barrages, dams, canals and distributaries. Vast areas of dry land have been successfully irrigated and green revolution has become a reality in India.
Providing better transportation facilities is also a part of civil Engineering. Good network of roads, highways & expressways are necessary for movement of men and materials. Railways, Airways and Waterways are needed for overall development of any country.
Water is an important need for all living beings. Potable water supply to the towns and cities is a thrust area in Civil Engineering. Natural water available in lakes and rivers is not suitable for drinking without proper treatment. Hence big water treatment plants have been constructed and operated to supply potable water to the public. In addition, waste water generated in the city has to be taken out and disposed after providing suitable treatment.
Flood control and environmental protection are other areas where in Civil Engineering has an important role to play. Dams and levees are constructed to mitigate floods. Waste Water Treatment plants are constructed to prevent pollution of surface and ground water sources.