The C language shook the computer world. Its impact should not be underestimated,
because it fundamentally changed the way programming was approached and thought
about. The creation of C was a direct result of the need for a structured, efficient, highlevel
language that could replace assembly code when creating systems programs. As
you probably know, when a computer language is designed, trade-offs are often made,
such as the following:
■ Ease-of-use versus power
■ Safety versus efficiency
■ Rigidity versus extensibility

Prior to C, programmers usually had to choose between languages that optimized
one set of traits or the other. For example, although FORTRAN could be used to write
fairly efficient programs for scientific applications, it was not very good for systems
code. And while BASIC was easy to learn, it wasn’t very powerful, and its lack of
structure made its usefulness questionable for large programs. Assembly language
can be used to produce highly efficient programs, but it is not easy to learn or use
effectively. Further, debugging assembly code can be quite difficult.
Another compounding problem was that early computer languages such as BASIC,
COBOL, and FORTRAN were not designed around structured principles. Instead, they
relied upon the GOTO as a primary means of program control. As a result, programs
written using these languages tended to produce “spaghetti code”—a mass of tangled
jumps and conditional branches that make a program virtually impossible to
understand. While languages like Pascal are structured, they were not designed for
efficiency, and failed to include certain features necessary to make them applicable to
a wide range of programs. (Specifically, given the standard dialects of Pascal available
at the time, it was not practical to consider using Pascal for systems-level code.)
So, just prior to the invention of C, no one language had reconciled the conflicting
attributes that had dogged earlier efforts. Yet the need for such a language was
pressing. By the early 1970s, the computer revolution was beginning to take hold, and
the demand for software was rapidly outpacing programmers’ ability to produce it.
A great deal of effort was being expended in academic circles in an attempt to create a
better computer language. But, and perhaps most importantly, a secondary force was
beginning to be felt. Computer hardware was finally becoming common enough that a
critical mass was being reached. No longer were computers kept behind locked doors.
For the first time, programmers were gaining virtually unlimited access to their
machines. This allowed the freedom to experiment. It also allowed programmers to
begin to create their own tools. On the eve of C’s creation, the stage was set for a
quantum leap forward in computer languages.
Invented and first implemented by Dennis Ritchie on a DEC PDP-11 running the
UNIX operating system, C was the result of a development process that started with
an older language called BCPL, developed by Martin Richards. BCPL influenced a
language called B, invented by Ken Thompson, which led to the development of C
in the 1970s. For many years, the de facto standard for C was the one supplied with
the UNIX operating system and described in The C Programming Language by Brian
Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie (Prentice-Hall, 1978). C was formally standardized in
December 1989, when the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard for
C was adopted.
The creation of C is considered by many to have marked the beginning of the
modern age of computer languages. It successfully synthesized the conflicting
attributes that had so troubled earlier languages. The result was a powerful, efficient,
structured language that was relatively easy to learn. It also included one other, nearly
intangible aspect: it was a programmer’s language. Prior to the invention of C, computer
languages were generally designed either as academic exercises or by bureaucratic
committees. C is different. It was designed, implemented, and developed by real,working programmers, reflecting the way that they approached the job of programming.
Its features were honed, tested, thought about, and rethought by the people who
actually used the language. The result was a language that programmers liked to use.
Indeed, C quickly attracted many followers who had a near-religious zeal for it. As
such, it found wide and rapid acceptance in the programmer community. In short,
C is a language designed by and for programmers. As you will see, Java has inherited
this legacy.