Buoyancy

In physics, buoyancy is the upward force that keeps things afloat. The net upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body. This force enables the object to float or at least seem lighter.

Archimedes' principle

It is named after Archimedes of Syracuse, who first discovered this law. According to Archimedes' principle, "Any object, wholly or partly immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object."

Vitruvius (De architectura IX.9–12) recounts the famous story of Archimedes making this discovery while in the bath. He was given the task of finding out if a goldsmith, who worked for the king, was carefully replacing the king's gold with silver. While doing this Archimedes decided he should take a break so went to take a bath. While entering the bath he noticed that when he placed his legs in, water spilled over the edge. Struck by a moment of realization, he shouted "Eureka!" He informed the king that there was a way to positively tell if the smith was cheating him. Knowing that gold has a higher density than silver, he placed the king's crown and then a gold crown of equal weight into a pool. The king's crown caused more water to overflow, showing that it had a greater volume for the same weight. It was, therefore, less dense than gold, and Archimedes concluded that it contained silver, causing the smith to be executed. The actual record of Archimedes' discoveries appears in his two-volume work, On Floating Bodies. The ancient Chinese child prodigy Cao Chong (196–208 AD) also applied the principle of buoyancy in order to accurately weigh an elephant, as described in the Sanguo Zhi, also known as the Records of Three Kingdoms.

Archimedes' principle does not consider the surface tension (capillarity) acting on the body.

The weight of the displaced fluid is directly proportional to the volume of the displaced fluid (if the surrounding fluid is of uniform density). Thus, among completely submerged objects with equal masses, objects with greater volume have greater buoyancy.

Suppose a rock's weight is measured as 10 newtons when suspended by a string in a vacuum. Suppose that when the rock is lowered by the string into water, it displaces water of weight 3 newtons. The force it then exerts on the string from which it hangs would be 10 newtons minus the 3 newtons of buoyant force: 10 − 3 = 7 newtons. Buoyancy reduces the apparent weight of objects that have sunk completely to the sea floor. It is generally easier to lift an object up through the water than it is to pull it out of the water.