Reducing interference in a cellular system is the most effective approach to increasing radio capacity and transmission data rate in the wireless environment. Therefore, reducing interference is a difficult and important challenge in wireless communications. In every two-way communication system it is necessary to use separate channels to transmit information in each direction. This is called duplexing. Currently there exist only two duplexing technologies in wireless communications, Frequency division duplexing (FDD) and time division duplexing (TDD). FDD has been the primary technology used in the first three generations of mobile wireless because of its ability to isolate interference. TDD is seemingly a more spectral efficient technology but has found limited use because of interference and coverage problems.
Code-division duplexing (CDD) is an innovative solution that can eliminate all kinds of interference. CDMA is the best multiple access scheme when compared to all others for combating interference. However, the codes in CDMA can be more than one type of code. A set of smart codes can make a high-capacity CDMA system very effective without adding other technologies. The smart code plus TDD is called CDD. This paper will elaborate on a set of smart codes that will make an efficient CDD system a reality. The CDMA system based on this is known as the LAS-CDMA, where LAS is a set of smart codes. LAS-CDMA is a new coding technology that will increase the capacity and spectral efficiency of mobile networks. The advanced technology uses a set of smart codes to restrict interference, a property that adversely affects the efficiency of CDMA networks.
To utilize spectrum efficiently, two transmission techniques need to be considered: one is a multiple access scheme and the other a duplexing system. There are three multiple access schemes namely TDMA, FDMA and CDMA. The industry has already established the best multiple access scheme, code-division multiple access (CDMA), for 3G systems. The next step is to select the best duplexing system. Duplexing systems are used for two-way communications. Presently, there are only two duplexing systems used: frequency-division duplexing (FDD), and time-division duplexing (TDD). The former uses different frequencies to handle incoming and outgoing signals. The latter uses a single frequency but different time slots to handle incoming and outgoing signals.
In the current cellular duplexing systems, FDD has been the appropriate choice, not TDD. Currently, all cellular systems use frequency-division duplexing in an attempt to eliminate interference from adjacent cells. The use of many technologies has limited the effects of interference but still certain types of interference remain. Time-division duplexing has not been used for mobile cellular systems because it is even more susceptible to different forms of interference. TDD can only be used for small confined area systems..
Code-division duplexing is an innovative solution that can eliminate all kinds of interference. Eliminating all types of interference makes CDD the most spectrum efficient duplexing system.
One of the key criteria in evaluating a communication system is its spectral efficiency, or the system capacity, for a given system bandwidth, or sometimes, the total data rate supported by the system. For a given bandwidth, the system capacity for narrow band radio systems is dimension limited, while the system capacity of a traditional CDMA system is interference limited. Traditional CDMA systems are all self-interference system. Three types of interference are usually considered. By ISI we mean InterSymbol Interference, which is created by the multi-path replica of the useful signal itself; MAI, or Mutual Access Interference, which is the interference created by the signals and their multi-path replica from the other users onto the useful signal; and ACI, or Adjacent Cell Interference, which is all the interfering signals from the adjacent cells onto the useful signal. .
Traditional synchronous CDMA systems employ almost exclusively Walsh-Hadamard orthogonal codes, jointly with PN sequence, and Gold codes, Kasami codes, etc. In these systems, due to the difficulty in timing synchronization and the large cross-correlation values around the origin, there exists a “near far” effect, such that in some typical system, fast power control has to be employed in order to keep an uniform received signal level at the base station. On the other hand, in forward channel all the signals’ power must be kept at an uniform level. Since the transmitting power of a user would interfere others and even may interfere itself, if one of the users in the system increases its power unilaterally, all other users power should be simultaneously increased; otherwise the controlled system power regime will be destroyed, and the capacity would be drastically decreased. This is because any radio channel, especially mobile channel, is a random time-varying time dispersion channel due to the multi-path effect, so that the received signal can not be reached at the receiver simultaneously.