ISAP Elements

ISAP Elements


A research paper does not contain all the elements of a formal report. It can be made effective if the matter is broken up into logical sections with suitable heading and sub headings.
1. Abstract of Summary
2. Introduction
3. Materials and methods.
4. Experimental and methods
5. Results
6. Discussions
7. Conclusion
8. Acknowledgements
9. List of symbols
10. References of bibliography

There is a large variety in the presentation of a matter in a research paper.
Even paper does have all the elements mentioned above.

A scientific or technical article may be deal with subject similar to those of a research paper. But its approach is different it is more general and informal. Sometime they are semi-technical in nature but in either case they try to answer in as plain a style as possible the following question:
1. How does something happen?
2. Why does it happen?
3. In what way does it help us?

The important in the article is the communication of the human implications of a device discovery or inventions rather than on the details of a process.

For Example:

A research paper on environmental pollution may explain how it is caused. Give the reason and suggest the way of controlling it in scientific terms. On the other hand an article on the same subject is likely to emphasis the impact of the pollution on plants, animals and human beings and the role of the common man in preventing it thus you will notice that an article is a piece of communication which permits greater flexibility in its approach style and structure.



A report is a major form of professional communication. Government uses it extensively. Business and industry an well in professions. Such a science engineering medicines etc. It facilitates decision-making and acts as an instruction for nurturing the health of an organisation and promoting its growth. A report is also used for the study of existing procedures and practices as well as launching new projects. It is always written to meet a demand or to fulfil a requirement.

Preparatory Steps

A report is the result of detailed planning and execution of the plan. When you are asked to write a report you should first understand the terms of the report reference, which would spell out the purpose and scope of the report. Audience determined is the next preparatory step which would help you to give a proper direction to your writing.
Very often the collection of data could be required before you draft an outline of the report required you to consult certain document in your organisation or books and journals in the library, you have to perform a series of experiments in a lab and record your observations. When you have to collect the data from many people you may have to report conducting personal interviews or sending mail questionnaires.

The usual sequence of report is shown below

1. Cover
2. Title Page
3. Acknowledgements
4. Table of Content
5. Abstract and Summary
6. Introduction
7. Discussion and Description
8. Conclusion
9. Recommendation
10. Appendix
11. List of references
12. Bibliography
13. Glossary
14. Index



A technical proposal may be defined as a written offer to solve a technical problem or to take a project of a practical or theoretical nature.
To accelerate our advancement we need technical proposals containing new ideas in fact each design. Maintenance and operational problem, which we come across, should treat as opportunity to propose similar more efficient and more economical solution.

Key factors

Every proposal suggests a way of doing a thing they key to success of proposal is whether it is able to persuade. The customer and the gain is acceptance persuasion has been defined as getting someone to do something.

To persuade the customer you should,

1. Understand his belief and attitudes.
2. Meet the anticipated objectives in your presentation.
3. Have a fund and goodwill.
4. Keep the proposal short and prescribe.
5. Let your proposal look need and attractive.

There are two types of proposals

1. Solicited
2. Unsolicited

A solicited proposal is one which is proposal in responds to specific invitation or demand. An unsolicited proposal is prepared in the hope that the excellence of the propose plane would attack the interest of the potential customer.
Content of the proposal consist of

1. Summary
2. Technical section
3. Management section
4. Cost estimate


The summary is the entire proposal in a nutshell. It is likely to be read by persons in positions of higher authority than any other section of your proposal. Summary often circulates separately to those responsible for taking a decision on your proposal.

Technical Section

It contains the technical details of the area in which you have an expert.

Management section

The section should clearly indicate how the proposed task should be completed.

Cost Estimate

In solicited proposal the amount and type of cost data required are given in the request for proposal.
In unsolicited proposal you should carefully include all the items anticipated expenditures. Most technical proposal contains cost analysis of the following items.

1. Materials
2. Equipments
3. Salaries of technical proposal
4. Salaries and wages of other proposals.
5. Travel
6. Contingencies
7. Publication
8. Outside consultant services


The organisation which invites proposal, has devised the format for their submission. You have to fill the required details.

Job hunting letter

When you wish to apply for job put its requirements against your qualification and experience if they match carefully draft your application letter. Since the amount and variety of information an employer may want, it is generally given in the form of a personal data or bio-data or resume, a brief introduction to the resume.

1. In preparing the resume give enough information to the employer the sequence of information usually follows the following pattern.
2. Personal details such as date of birth, material status, address, etc.
3. Educational details beginning from high school examination to the highest level.
4. Training is nature and durations.
5. Experience is its organisation in which you worked nature of duties and duration.
6. Other accomplishments, prizes and awards won research paper book published, etc.
7. References-names of usually three persons are given.

A senior member of faculty in the college /university last attended
The present employer
Responsible persons who is acquainted with you and your work

The reference are an essential elements for its gives the prospective employer an objective assessment of your achievements by reliable persons. If the references contain strong recommendations your case for the job would get strengthened considerably.

Instruction and Users manual

A manual is a console references handbook dealing with a particular process, procedure, operation, mechanism, job-instruction etc. It is essentially a how to do it documents prepared. It explains how a certain thing happens or how a particular job should be done.

Typical uses of a manual are:

1. Instructions to customers on the use of the equipment/appliance you are supplying.
2. Instructions to customer representatives on how to instruct their own employees on the use of the machine.
3. Instruction of management, supporting staff or helping staff on the use of equipment or procedure.
4. Instructions to other department or organisations on how to liaise their operations with yours.

Types of Manuals:
There are three types of manuals

1. Technical manual
2. Laboratory manual
3. Procedure manual

Technical Manual:

A technical manual describes an appliance or mechanical devices and certain instructions for installation operation, maintenance and repairs, etc. It also helps to solve the problems in their working.

Laboratory Manual:

It describes how the user of the lab should perform specified experiments and gives information about the concerned equipment, component devices and testing techniques.

Procedure Manual:

It deals with established procedures and working practices in an organisation. Generally the contents of such a manual are of non-technical nature.

Common features of manual are

1. Sources
2. Parts
3. Style


When you are asked to write a manual the first problem you would face where to get the form.
There are two types of sources

1. Your own personal experience in area.
2. Other experiences and documents dealing with the subject matter, these are reports, letters, memos, notes in the file etc.

A manual has the following parts

1. Cover
2. Table of contents
3. List of illustrations
4. Introduction
5. Descriptions main body
6. Appendix
7. Glossary and index

In a manual you have to make extensive use of illustrations and give frequent and numerous examples to derive the meaning home. A verbal instruction gets greatly strengthened by graphic representation.

Business Letter:

A business letter is a form of communication written by an authored person of an organisation.
Purpose of business letter is as follows:

1. Making or answering the enquiry
2. Placing an order
3. Demanding or refusing credit
4. Selling goods and services
5. Making accepting or refusing a request
6. Making responding to complaints etc.

The structure of a business letter has a number of elements or parts. The seven elements that normally appear in every letter are:

1. Heading
2. Date
3. Inside address
4. Salutation
5. Body
6. Complimentary close
7. Typed signature

Compulsory Element:

The heading includes the name and address of the sender and sometimes his telephone number and telegraphic address. Many organisations use printed heads for this purpose the heading is normally printed or typed in the middle of the page just below the top margin.

The data is written or typed with right hand margin of the letter.

Inside address:
The inside address contains the full name, designation and business address of the person written to just as it would appear on the envelope, the inside address should be flushed with the receiver and the form of the inside address.

The body is generally made up of three parts;

1. An introductory statement specifying the nature of the business.
2. The message that you are conveying along with essential details.
3. The concluding remarks.

Complementary close:

It is a formal polite way signalling the end of the letter. The first letter of the first board of a complimentary close is written in capitals and a comma is put at the end of the last word.

The complimentary close is usually a conventional expression in formality with solution.

Typed signature:
Just below the complimentary close the typed signature of the letter is placed six to eight spaces are left to provide enough space for foot. Hand written signature, the writer’s designation or his department is placed on the very next line.


Notices, agenda and minutes:

Here we briefly discuss how notices, agenda and minutes are written in professional world.

Usually every organisation plans rules of procedure for the conduct of the meetings. When you are required to call a meeting send a written notice within the specified time to every member of the groups, the notice should mention the name and the address of the organisation and the date on which it is issued besides indicating the day, date, time and venue of the meeting.

Agenda is an official list of items of the business to be transacted at a specific meeting. It helps in conducting meeting in proper order, minimises irrelevant discussions and preserves continuity in the proceedings. Since it is circulated along with the notice every member knows beforehand the item of discussion and can make up his mind what he wishes to say on a particular issue on the agenda. The chairman can also control the member’s from going out of the track and to originate the time to be devoted to individual items.

The items of an agenda are arranged in increasing order of importance and each bears a number. However, almost every agenda has a confirmation of the minutes of the previous meeting as the first item and any other matter with the permission of the chairman as the last item.

When the agenda is to ensure to the notice the following intimations is required.
1. Name of the organisation/unit
2. Date of circulation
3. Day, date, time venue of the meeting
4. Signature of the secretary

The following source might be used for agenda items:
1. Minutes of the previous meeting
2. Suggestion received from the members
3. Actions and events since previous meeting
4. Correspondence on the subject.

Before finalising the item get the chairman’s approval.

Minutes are the official record of the business translated at a meeting. It out as aid to memory and provide a basic for decision and action.
The style of minutes is impersonal objectives, and the matters of fact minutes follows the pattern of agenda and bear some numbers, for each items of a heading is given and the discussion/decision on it recorded.

Minutes are self sufficient records it is automatic to give the following details
1. Name of the originating/unit.
2. Day, date, time and venue of the meeting.
3. Names of the chairmen and the secretary.
4. Names of the members present.
5. Name of the persons who attend the meeting by special invitation if any.
6. Record of transaction, item wise.
7. Signature of the secretary and the chairman.